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By Youssef M. Choueiri

Справочник «История Ближнего Востока» предлагает свежий взгляд на многогранную и многослойную историю этого региона, к которому отнесены Иран, Турция, Израиль и Арабский мир.
В его составе – 26 очерков международного коллектива ученых, акцентированных, в основном, на новом и новейшем периоде. В очерках уделено внимание религиозной, социальной, культурной, экономической, политической и военной истории. Затронуты также текущие проблемы, такие как - нефтяной вопрос , урбанизация, роль женщин и права человека.Образцы сканов:

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The fact that from about A D 800 onwards we see the production of a vast mass of traditional literature that has survived and been transmitted until today can suggest a different perspective, however. It may be taken to indicate that the formative period of Islam was coming to its end, that the religion and culture that had been developing in the Middle East following the Arab conquests a hundred and fifty years before was now showing signs of fruition. It too may be used to support the understanding of the rise of Islam as a gradual growth that reached maturity in the third/ninth century.

For many of them, Islam may even be understood as an ideal, distinct from the individuals and societies that have embodied it. It is made known through revelation and it is possible to ascertain what represents true Islam as distinct from corrupted or mistaken forms of it. For a historian, on the other hand, a particular religion is not an abstract concept but something known from its diverse historical manifestations. Islam is the totality of what Muslims of different sorts have made it. It may be tempting to identify a particular idea or practice as ‘not real Islam’ or ‘debased Islam’, but when trying to understand it the academic observer has to take into account all of the ways in which Muslims have understood and practised it.

Husayn and many _ sent to Yazı¯d in members of his family were massacred at Karbala¯ š in Iraq and his head Damascus where it was put on display. In the Shı¯œ ite tradition this shedding of Husayn’s blood came to be given a significance not unlike the shedding of that _ Jesus for Christians. The day when it happened, the tenth day of the first of ¯ shu¯ra¯ š day), became in time the major annual festival month of the Muslim year (œ A of Shiœ ite Islam, marked by ceremonies and processions in its communities throughout the world.

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