By Béla Tomka
A Social historical past of Twentieth-Century Europe deals a scientific evaluate on significant points of social existence, together with inhabitants, kin and families, social inequalities and mobility, the welfare kingdom, paintings, intake and relaxation, social cleavages in politics, urbanization in addition to schooling, faith and tradition. It additionally addresses significant debates and diverging interpretations of ancient and social examine concerning the background of ecu societies some time past 100 years.
Organized in ten thematic chapters, this e-book takes an interdisciplinary method, using the equipment and result of not just background, but additionally sociology, demography, economics and political technological know-how. Béla Tomka provides either the range and the commonalities of ecu societies having a look not only to Western eu nations, yet jap, relevant and Southern eu international locations besides. an ideal advent for all scholars of ecu heritage.
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Additional info for A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe
32 Throughout the twentieth century, the costs of childrearing increased and the economic beneﬁts of childrearing declined for several reasons, including the decline of agriculture and self-employment, legal restrictions on child labour, compulsory education, rising housing and educational standards and costs, and growing female employment increasing the opportunity cost of the time of women. Thus, couples were led to reduce the number of children to create a new balance between costs and beneﬁts.
At the end of the century, depressing demographic conditions emerged in Germany, Spain, Italy and many East Central and South-Eastern European countries, where fertility dropped to extremely low levels. g. 9 All in all, the slowest population growth between 1920 and the end of the century was produced by Austria (27%) and Hungary (28%). Modest growth can be observed in Poland, Ireland, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom as well, although the causes behind this development diﬀer from country to country.
E. in reality there exists no stationary state of population. Also, researchers have pointed out that, contrary to expectations, the last stage has not been observed anywhere. The population development of less industrialized countries is still at the phase of expansion, and there is no assurance that they will replicate the experience of Europe and its direct overseas oﬀshoots. 13 Furthermore, one of the most fundamental lines of criticism concerns the connection made in the model between the decrease of fertility and what is called the modernization process.