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All LOCA events are classified as accidents. Loss of primary coolant into the secondary circuit, for example due to the rupture of the SG tubes, requires special consideration and is discussed separately in Section 11. LOCAs have various safety aspects leading to potential violation of the acceptance criteria, as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 32 The high velocity stream of the escaping primary coolant generates jet forces and reaction forces (leading to pipe whip) that endanger other systems close to the ruptured pipe and containment internals.

The accident leads simultaneously to depressurization (cooling down) of the secondary circuit and loss of the secondary coolant, leading also to overcooling of the RCS. Typically, the effect of cooling down dominates, leading to a non-symmetrical cooling of the RPV wall, to a positive reactivity insertion, to a potential recriticality and to a reactor power increase in some situations regardless of scram. Safety aspects of this accident, with possible violation of acceptance criteria, are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Possible reactor power increase or reactor recriticality after its shutdown due to a substantial decrease of the core inlet temperature, typically in one section of the core adjacent to the affected loop.

Proper consideration of changes in pressure loss coefficients due to possible changes in coolant flow directions and flow regimes. — Internal coolant circulation in the reactor through the fuel channel and core bypass. — Water carryover by steam at low primary system pressure. — Interfacial friction correlations between steam and water; these are supposed to be well known for high pressure states in different two phase flow regimes; their range of validity needs to be checked and/or extended to low pressure.

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