In a single of the main unique books of past due antiquity, Philoponus argues for the Christian view that subject should be created by means of God out of not anything. It wishes no previous topic for its production. whilst, Philoponus transforms Aristotle's belief of best topic as an incorporeal 'something - i do know now not what' that serves because the final topic for receiving extension and features. to the contrary, says Philoponus, the last word topic is extension. it truly is 3-dimensional extension with its specific dimensions and any features unspecified. furthermore, such extension is the defining attribute of physique. therefore, to this point from being incorporeal, it's physique, and in addition to being top subject, it truly is shape - the shape that constitutes physique. This makes use of, yet solely disrupts, Aristotle's conceptual gear. eventually, in Aristotle's scheme of different types, this extension isn't to be categorised below the second one classification of volume, yet less than the 1st class of substance as a considerable volume. This quantity includes an English translation of Philoponus' observation, particular notes and advent, and a bibliography.
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Additional info for Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 9-11 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
For if there is a totality of whiteness, there will also be a totality of white body, and the same will go for each form. So let them explain to us what a totality of white body, or, black, or sweet, or of triangle, or of anything else [of that kind] is; for if such totalities are endowed with qualities (since whiteness and blackness and the rest are qualities), they are certainly also perceptible. 149 And yet by sense we apprehend bodies150 without a break all the way from the earth to [the sphere of the] fixed [stars], [and] there are of necessity [bodies of] the same [kind] in the other hemisphere as well.
89 Proclus, having, as he believed, demonstrated from the cosmos’ being a god that it contains nothing evil and therefore contains nothing able to destroy [it],90 next91 attempts to demonstrate from this that it has not even come to be. For, he says, destruction and generation have the same cause, but when controlled [it is the cause] of generation, and when it has the control, of destruction. Should, then, he says, the ordered and well-arranged universe be destroyed, it could not be destroyed by anything other than disorder and disarray;92 for this is the evil of a thing that is ordered and well-arranged.
And so, he says, we say that things which partake of opposites and are themselves homonymously155 called opposites (because both the whiteness and the body itself which has been whitened are called white) come into being out of one another, but do not also say that the things of which they partake (I mean the forms themselves of the opposites, such as blackness itself and whiteness itself) come into being out of one another (for this has been shown to be impossible), but, if anything, [that they come into being] one after the other; for blackness comes to be present in a substrate after whiteness (or vice versa), and the same goes for everything else.