By Domenico Bonamonte, Gianni Angelini
This well-illustrated quickly reference publication, now in its moment variation, is a finished consultant to the aquatic pores and skin ailments because of biotic and non-biotic noxae. it is going to help the dermatologist in spotting and treating a number of unexpected stipulations which are however progressively expanding in occurrence because of wider use of the hydrosphere for vacation, recreation, and occupational actions all year long. past the thorough exam of the dermatoses attributable to a variety of organisms akin to jellyfish, sea anemones, echinoderms, molluscs, algae, aquatic worms, and fish, consciousness is interested in capability systemic reactions, which are critical or maybe deadly. additionally, the total spectrum of wound infections and reactions because of microscopic organisms populating the aquatic atmosphere, e.g., mycobacteria, streptococci, Aeromonas, and vibrios, is taken into account. eventually, precise recognition is paid to the various different stipulations associated with salt or freshwater touch, together with aquagenic urticaria and pruritus, chlorine inflammation, touch dermatitis from swimming or diving apparatus, surfer’s nodules, and chemical conjunctivitis. Aquatic Dermatology could be a brief connection with enhance wisdom of the aquatic atmosphere and its hazards, and a great tool to clinicians and pros practising in coastal and marine areas.
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Extra resources for Aquatic Dermatology: Biotic, Chemical and Physical Agents
6 The same case as in Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Flabellina ischitana (nudibranch mollusc) (Courtesy of Drs. , 1995) D. Bonamonte et al. 3 Main stinging cnidarians: geographical distribution and symptoms Species Pelagia noctiluca Chrysaora quinquecirrha Cyanea capillata Chironex fleckeri Geographic distribution Worldwide, tropical and cold waters. Common in the Mediterrean Sea, North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans Australia, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans North Sea, North Atlantic, Arctic Sea, North Pacific Australia, Indo-Pacific region Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Australia, Indo-Pacific region Chiropsalmus quadrumanus North West Atlantic, Caribbean, Brazil Carybdea rastoni Australia Carybdea alata Tropical/subtropical Pacific waters, Hawaii Morbakka Australia Caruchia barnesi Anemonia sulcata Australia Mediterrean Sea Physalia physalis Worldwide, more common in tropical waters Physalia utriculus Tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean, Australia, South Atlantic Symptoms Immediate severe pain, wheals, vesico-bullae Rare systemic effects Intense pain, wheals/rash for days Pain, wheals, erythema Pain, wheals, blistering for 10 days, scarring Severe hypotension, arrythmias, cardiac failure/arrest, pulmonary hypertension Pain, wheals, swelling for 24 h Bradycardia, asystole, pulmonary hypertension/oedema Pain, wheals for 24 h Scarring and dyschromia for 2 months Hypotension, acute cardiac failure, pulmonary hypertension/ oedema Delayed moderate pain, wheals, blisters, dyschromia for 2 weeks Pain, wheals, blisters, dyschromia for 2 weeks Mild Irukandji syndrome, possible allergic reactions Wheals, intense pain, vesicles, skin necrosis.
Death is generally the result of cardiac asystole [162, 163]. C. fleckeri anti-venom, obtained by hyperimmunization from sheep, has been widely available since the 1970s and is produced by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratory (Melbourne, Australia) [153, 161]. However, it must be administered very soon after the event. Indications for anti-venom include cardiorespiratory arrest, arrhythmias, and difficulty in breathing, severe pain, or extensive skin lesions. Chiropsalmus quadrigatus is very common in Australia, the Philippines, Japan, the Indo-Pacific Ocean, North America and the Caribbean seas .
Its usual habitat is tropical and temperate waters between the 23rd and the 42nd south parallel of latitude . It is particularly common along the coasts of the Mar del Plata and in the Blanca Bay area to the south of Buenos Aires. Patch tests with crude extract of the nematocysts were positive in a subject who had developed a more serious skin reaction only after repeated exposure with slight symptoms. The same patch test was negative in 10 controls . Histological Findings Histological analysis of local skin lesions shows a lymphocyte infiltrate, prevalently in perivasal sites in the superficial derma.