By Dan Green
Too frequently descriptions of detectors concentrate on the "what" and never the "why". This quantity goals to clarify how the necessities of the physics on the huge Hadron Collider (LHC) outline the detector atmosphere. In flip, the detector offerings are made to undertake to that setting. The target of LHC physics is to discover the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. as a result of the minuscule cross-sections which must be explored, 0.1 facebook, the LHC must supply a hundred fb-1/yr, or an immediate luminosity of 1034 / (cm2 sec). With a number crossing period of 25 nsec, like minded to detector speeds, there'll be 25 occasions occupying every one bunch crossing. hence the physics calls for speedy, finely segmented, low noise and radiation resistant detectors which offer redundant measurements of the hardly ever produced electrons and muons. to accomplish these targets, new flooring used to be damaged in developing the A Toroidal LHC equipment (ATLAS) and Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detectors within the vertex detectors, monitoring platforms, calorimetry, robust magnets, muon structures, entrance finish electronics, set off platforms, and within the info acquisition equipment used.
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Extra info for At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments
Fragmentation. Underlying event and jet shapes at the Tevatron CDF), in Hadron Collider Physics 2005 (Springer, 2006). 14. pid=1000000 — home page for the ILC. 15. edu/∼lc/wwstudy/concepts/ — links to four design concepts. 16. N. , Nucl. Instr. Meths. A 537 (2005) 537. 5in — At the Leading Edge ... b866-ch02 41 Chapter 2 THE CMS PIXEL DETECTOR W. ch The inner tracking detectors at the LHC operate in a region of unprecedented particle rates. Thousands of hits must be detected, time-stamped and stored in every 25 ns bunch crossing interval.
The smallest radius at which a traditional silicon microstrip detector can function in such an environment is limited by occupancy and radiation damage. Reducing the size of the sensor elements brings occupancy to a manageable level. It also mitigates the problems of radiation damage of the sensors. Smaller detector capacitance permits high signal-to-noise ratios even when charge collection degrades. Leakage currents per channel remain small enough to be absorbed in the front-ends. Extremely short strips or pixels are therefore an inevitable choice for a vertex detector at the LHC.
The requirements for the muon system are similar to those for the tracking system. 25 TeV for the muons. In addition, the system must produce a trigger so as to reduce the rate of background muons from the heavy ﬂavor decays. 5in — At the Leading Edge ... b866-ch01 D. Green The ionization energy loss in the calorimetry provides a lower momentum cutoﬀ for the muons. 7 GeV. However, that cutoﬀ is not suﬃcient to reduce the muon rate in the muon system to an acceptable level. Therefore, the muon system must measure the muon transverse momentum accurately, set a threshold value — say, 10 GeV — and report it to the trigger system.