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A. Tuve, L. R . Hafstad, and 0. Dahl, Phys. Rev. 48, 315 (1935). This paper describes the DTM 1 MeV and a 400 keV model they built. These authors also reported observing 1 MeV H+ particles from a Tesla coil discharge device in 1932, Phys. Rev. 39, 384 (1932). In M. A . Tuve, N. P. Heydenburg, and L. R . Hafstad, Phys. Rev. 49,402L (1936); 56, 125 (1939). ls Is 6 1. 1. The first I-MV DC accelerator to use the generator developed by R. J. Van de Graaff in 1929 was completed in 1933 by M. A . Tuve (in picture) at DTM.

Arrnbruster, Z . Phys. 166, 341 (1962); P. Arrnbruster, E. Roeckl, H . J . Specht, and A. Vollmer, Z . Naturforsh 19A, 1301 (1964). H . J . Specht,Z. Phys. 185, 301 (1965). 67 V. V . Afrosimov, Y . S. Gordeev, M . N . Panov, and N . V . Fredorenko,Zh. Tehhti. Fiz. -Tech. Phys. 9, 1248: 1256: 1265 (1965)l. 68 E. Everhart and Q. C. Kessel, Phys. Rrv. Lett. 14, 247 (1965). 6s U . Fano and W. Lichten, Phys. Rrv. Lett. 14, 627 (1965). 2. ACCELERATED IONS FOR ATOMIC COLLISIONS 23 sions in which the velocity of the ion A is equal to the average orbital velocity of the K-shell and L-shell electrons.

E. Schistt, Mur. Fys. Mrdd. D u n . Vid. Selsk. 14 (1963). 5, 1192 6, 534 9, 1076 33, No. 2. 29 GENERAL CONCEPTS O F ENERGY LOSS Relativistic effect Perturbation treatment Bethe (Born approximation) Bloch (impact parameter) Cindhard (dielectric method) I I I I I lo-* I 10-1 1 Proton energy (MeV) effect 1 I I lo2 lo3 lo4 FIG. 1. Stopping cross section of protons in silicon. The general shape is described by various theories for various energy regions. however, produce different effects in targets.

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