By Majid Fakhry
This e-book offers a accomplished evaluation of the existence, instances, and achievements of Averroes, a twelfth-century Muslim thinker whose rules have been so debatable that his books have been burnt no longer as soon as, yet two times. a desirable advent that covers all of the key matters and underlines the significance of Islamic philosophy as an important element in modern Western tradition.
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Extra resources for Averroes: His Life, Work and Influence
As for the argument from contingency, it is purely gratuitous, as we have seen, since the proposition that the world is contingent is rooted in our ignorance of the causes which determine the natures of existing entities, and contradicts the wisdom of the Creator who has ordered the world rationally. e. T h e first rests on the double premise that everything in the world exists in order to serve the well-being of mankind, and as such is the product of the action of a willful Agent, or God. j2 The second proof rests on two premises, the first of which is that the great multitude of plants, animals and heavenly bodies are all the product of invention.
T h e fourth class consists of those categories which are neither predicable of a subject nor present in a subject, by which Aristotle means substance, as defined in Categories 5. This substance both Aristotle and Averroes identify with the individual, such as Zayd and 'Amr in Averroes' examples. T h e difference between substance and accident, whether general or particular, is that substance is, by definition, that which is never present in a subject nor predicable of a subject, since it is the subject of which all accidents and attributes are predicated.
Tahilf~tal-Tahilfit, pp. 36 and 9 f. The Critique of Asbarite Theology 19 Moreover, the nature of will consists in being a power to do one of two contrary alternatives. Thus to posit an eternal will contradicts the very nature of will. Add to this that will signifies a desire on the part of the agent to do a certain action, which once it is done the desire ceases and this means, once more, that the concept of an eternal will is selfcontradictory. ' Natural willing is excluded on the ground that it subjects God to a state of compulsion, and free will is excluded on the ground that it presupposes some want or other and is a form of affection (infiZI, or change, of which God is free.