By Ingvar Sundh, Andrea Wilcks, Mark S. Goettel
Microorganisms are widespread in a variety of worthy functions, together with meals, pest regulate, bioremediation, biodegradation, biofuel strategies, and plant symbiosis and development stimulation. This ebook presents an summary of the to be had technique for defense exams of microorganisms, together with decision in their infectivity and whether or not they produce poisonous or sensitizing elements. additionally lined are the regulatory platforms in hazard overview and administration of microbial items, quarantine legislation, overseas treaties, the significance of public threat conception and threat relief habit.
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Extra info for Beneficial microorganisms in agriculture, food and the environment : safety assessment and regulation
These traditional ©CAB International 2012. Beneficial Microorganisms in Agriculture, Food and the Environment: Safety Assessment and Regulation (eds I. ) 27 28 A. von Wright approaches are still applied, even in the developed world, to many artisanal products and even to some industrial-scale productions. However, as a rule today, defined starter cultures of microorganisms are generally used to ensure the proper production process and the high quality of the final products. The same applies to other types of microbial cultures (probiotics, protective cultures) which are discussed in more detail below.
Among the fungi, yeasts have long been exploited to ferment cereal mash, grape musts and other naturally derived substrates for the purposes of brewing, baking, winemaking and distilling. After all these processes (except baking), there has been a residue of spent fermentation mass, 22 S. Wessels consisting largely of the propagated microorganisms. It can be presumed that use of the spent biomass as animal feed very quickly became apparent and exploited when animal husbandry was close to the site of fermentation.
Wessels 2002). Such self-scrutiny is the basis of the system of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) in the USA, but is virtually not at all implemented in the EU (EFSA, 2007; US FDA, 2010b). Since its start in 2002, the EU food authority EFSA had most probably already acknowledged the administrative burden of authorizing the myriad of microorganisms in the beneficial cultures used in food and feed in the EU. EFSA did recognize the efficiency of the US system of GRAS for evaluating the safety of cultures with a long history of safe use (EFSA, 2005).