By Robert Plonsey, Adriaan van Oosterom (auth.), Samuel Sideman D.Sc., Rafael Beyar M.D., D.Sc., André G. Kléber M.D. (eds.)
The cardiac approach represents essentially the most fascinating demanding situations to human ingenuity. severe to our survival, it involves a tantalizing array of interacting phenomena, from ionic microscopic shipping, membrane channels and receptors via mobile metabolism, power construction to fiber mechanics, microcirculation, electric activation to the worldwide, clinically saw, functionality, that's measured through strain, quantity, coronary circulate, center expense, form alterations and responds to imposed lots and pharmaceutical demanding situations. it's a complicated interdisciplinary method requiring the joint efforts of the existence sciences, the precise sciences, engineering and expertise to appreciate and keep watch over the pathologies concerned. The Henry Goldberg Workshops have been organize to handle those demanding situations. in short, our pursuits are: 1. To foster interdisciplinary interplay among scientists from diversified parts of cardiology, determine lacking hyperlinks, and catalyze new questions. 2. to narrate micro scale mobile phenomena to the worldwide, clinically manifested cardiac functionality. three. to narrate conceptual modeling and quantitative research to experimental and scientific facts. four. To motivate foreign cooperation on the way to disperse clinical and technological know the way and bring about greater knowing of the cardiac process. this present day we have a good time the seventh birthday of a dream come precise; a dream to assemble the different services within the quite a few fields of technological know-how, engineering and medication, to narrate to the various interactive parameters and disciplines desirous about the functionality of the heart.
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Additional info for Cardiac Electrophysiology, Circulation, and Transport
The combined models are first tested by simulating normal patterns of propagation, and then used to study the effects of simulated ectopic activity and the effects of a regional area of slow conduction. An area of slowed conduction, which occurs during ischemia, may form a unidirectional block, resulting in a reentry, depending on the geometrical shape of the border between the normal and pathological areas. The two different pathologies studied here generate different patterns of activation in the ventricles; these may eventually be used to classify the two cases.
The combination of the anisotropy of the tissue, the existence of an area of slow conduction and of some kind of a conduction block , has been considered to be a major contributor to the generation and maintenance of reentry 24 loops [13, 14]. This phenomenon has been demonstrated here in the 2D model, and extended to show its effect on the whole myocardium. e. regional area of increased inter-cellular resistance), and demonstrate the initiation and maintenance of a sustained reentrant activation.
Experimental measurements of propagation patterns in 2D myocardial tissue preparations have demonstrated the dependence of conduction velocities on membrane characteristics  and fiber orientation [4, 9]. While the former property has been used only in the 2D model, the latter has been used in both 2D and 3D models: Membrane properties appear explicitly as parameters of the 2D tissue model, corresponding to the BR formulation, and therefore this model can be used to represent the area that generates the pathologies.