By S.S. Rahman and G.V. Chilingarian (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Casing Design Theory and Practice
Therefore. related to the makeup torque and tlir gravity of t h e thread c o i i l p o ~ ~ i dEX. cessive makeup or insufficient rriakrup can hot 11 be har~iifiilt o the sraliiig properties of joints. The need for excessive makeup torque to generate liigli pressure ofteii causes yielding of the joint. Metal-to-Metal Seal: There are two types of iiietal-to-nirtal seal: radial and shoulder. Radial is iisuall?. u s e d as tlie primary s ~ a and l the >boulder as tlic backup seal. A radial seal gencrall!.
Combining Eqs. 46 As b, then Eq. 24) where: do As (3 w~ nominal diameter of the pipe, in. pipe cross-sectional area, in. 2 degrees (~ per 100 feet ('dogleg severity'). nominal weight of pipe, lb/ft. - - EXAMPLE 2-5" Calculate the axial load due to bending in the string in Example 2-4 given that the maximum 'dogleg severity', O, is 3~ ft. Solution" Applying Eq. 24, recommended by Bowers (1955), Greenip (1978), and Rabid (1987), is widely used to determine axial load due to pipe bending. The equation should, however, only be used in circumstances where the pipe is in continuous contact with the borehole.
15) where: % - "~m -BF - specific weight ~ of steel. 4 lb/gal. specific weight of drilling fluid, lb/gal. buoyancy factor The buoyancy of the casing string is the same in any position. However, when it is vertical the entire force is concentrated at the lower end. whereas in the horizontal position it is distributed evenly over the length. At positions between horizontal and vertical, the force is a mix of concentrated and distributed. J It could be argued that buoyancy is a distributed force even in the vertical case and, therefore, reduces the weight of each increment of the pipe by the weight of the fluid displaced by that increment.