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By David N. Hume (auth.), Sut Ahuja, Edward M. Cohen, Theo. J. Kneip, Jack L. Lambert, Gunter Zweig (eds.)

With the increase often expertise of the results of hint chemical compounds within the atmosphere on man's healthiness, it's been discovered that conventional equipment of research are usually insufficient. trustworthy analyses are wanted within the fractional parts-per­ million variety of contaminants in condensed stages, and of the order of micrograms in step with cubic meter in air. attempting to get significant solutions concerning such minute quantities increases cogent difficulties in all levels of an research. it truly is best suited, for that reason, that the 1971 japanese Analytical Symposium must have 4 half-day periods dedicated to this basic box. of those, entitled "Trace Metals within the Envi­ ronment," have been assembled through Dr. Kneip, one on "Pesticides within the atmosphere: lately came across Analytical Problems," by way of Dr. Zweig, and one on "The selection of Anions in Water," by means of Dr. Lambert. jointly, those stories provide a reasonably whole photograph of the current kingdom of environmental anal­ ysis. the rest of this quantity is dedicated to pharmaceutical research, a different box within which approximately all analytical equipment discover a position. partially due to this multiplicity of thoughts, and in part as a result of huge variety of samples which has to be tested in reference to the manu­ facture, organic checking out, and scientific applica­ tion of pharmaceutical arrangements, this quarter is especially acceptable for the creation of automation. the target, extensively, is to hurry up a number of analyses with no the sacrifice of accuracy.

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At site 6, which was downstream from an industrial area, the highest concentration of cadmium occurs for every species of the biota. Bioconcentration does occur and a moderately constant concentration factor probably exists over a range of cadmium concentrations in the ambient water. Plutonium - The data for plutonium uptake by aquatic organisms has been reviewed most recently by Noshkin (21). Concentration factors reported range from 20 to 21,000 for marine invertebrates and algae. Several relationships are apparent from the data.

Thus,the term biomagnification should be used only when a definite food web relationship has been demonstrated. GENERAL RELATIONSHIPS There are many major variables which may affect conce~ tration factors. Discussion of a few of them serves to illustrate the problems in the use of such factors. It must be recognized that for the concentration factor to have meaning at any time other than the instant at which the concentrations are initially determined, organisms must develop a steady state or equilibrium concentration in their tissues relative to environmental exposure levels.

Some fairly obvious characteristics observed in the summaries of Tables 8, 9 and 10 will be described in this section; and where possible, our results will be compared to those of other investigators. Comparing trace metal concentrations in total fallout and precipitation (Tables 8 and 9), the differences are indeed seen to be significant. 74 0034 These suggest that most of the zinc comes down in rain, while less of the V, eu and Pb are so deposited. Perhaps this difference is related to the proximity of our sampler to local sources of these metals.

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