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By Ashok Mulchandani and Omowunmi A. Sadik (Eds.)

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Extra resources for Chemical and Biological Sensors for Environmental Monitoring

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3%, and 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) 99% were EPA reference standards (EPA-Research Triangle Park, NC). 9%) wasfromJ. T. Baker. All reagents were used as supplied by the manufacturers and 2% butanol in nanopure water was used as the wash solution for the sensor arrays. Pyrene was dissolved in toluene/methanol mixture (10:1, v/v). Instrumentation AromaScanner model A32S (AromaScan, Inc. NH) was used for all electronic nose experiments. The block diagram of this system is shown in Figure 1. The instrument consists of a sample station, sample analyzer and A32S software.

The most significant differences in the infrared spectra of di-p-naphthylthiocarbazone-supported polystyrenes functionalized by the method of Chwastowska and Kosiarska (10) upon treatment with heavy metals were observed in the 1100-1600 c m region. Thus the infrared band around 1382 c m vanished from spectra of samples treated with Pb * and H g . Instead a set of bands around 1310, 1341, and 1360 c m was observed. The bands at -1152, 1474 and 1583 c m for anchored di-P-naphthylthiocarbazone were shifted to 1176 and 1173 c m , 1491 and 1486 c m , and 1594 and 1597 c m for P b and H g treated samples, respectively.

This objective thus requires the development of highly colored chromogenic ligands with selective heavy metal complexing abilities as well as methods for incorporating such ligands into optic sensors through suitably chosen immobilization procedures. Among the diverse immobilization methods, the use of chemical bonding of the chromogenic ligand onto a polystyrene matrix appears to be very attractive since polystyrene can be readily converted to aminopolystyrene (8,9,10) and then diazotized with nitrous acid (Figure 1).

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