Download Clinical Examination of Musculoskeletal System by W. Watson Buchanan PDF

By W. Watson Buchanan

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows noninvasive imaging of the "human mind at paintings" lower than physiological stipulations. this can be the 1st textbook on scientific fMRI. it's dedicated to preoperative fMRI in sufferers with mind tumors and epilepsies, that are the main well-established scientific purposes. by means of localizing and lateralizing particular mind services, in addition to epileptogenic zones, fMRI enables the choice of a secure remedy and the making plans and function of function-preserving neurosurgery. cutting-edge fMRI methods are offered, with unique attention of the physiological and methodological history, imaging and information processing, common and pathological findings, diagnostic chances and boundaries, and different comparable options. All chapters are written by means of famous specialists of their fields, and the e-book is designed to be of worth to rookies, informed clinicians and specialists alike.

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CHAPTER Two 129 I 30 CHAPTER Two THE CERVICAL & THORACIC SPINE: MECHANICAL DIAGN OSIS & THERAPY Trauma as a cause of pain Pain due to trauma is produced by a combination of mechanical deformation and chemical irritation. Initially, mechanical deformation causes damage to soft tissues and pain of mechanical origin is felt. In most instances this is a sharp pain. Shortly after injury, chemical substances accumulate in the damaged tissues. As soon as the concentration of these chemical irritants is sufficient to enhance the activity of the nociceptive receptor system in the surrounding tissues, pain is felt.

After tissue damage is detected, this information is transmitted by way of the peripheral and central nervous system to the cortex. However, en route the nociceptive message is modulated; in this way the central nervous system can exert an inhibitory or excitatory influence on the nociceptive input (Wright 2002). Thus, the classical concept of pain being a straightforward reflection of specific t issue damage is outmoded, given the current understanding of pain. Especially with patients who have chronic pain, the factors that in fluence the clinical presentation are more than simple nociception (Unruh and Henriksson 2002).

Hoving et al. (2001) identi fied and examined twenty- five reviews, of which twelve were systematic, but all these were from the 1990s. Conclusions lacked agreement about mobilisation, acupuncture and drug therapy, but agreed that the evidence was inconclusive on the e ffectiveness o f manipulation and traction. This brief summary of the literature, despite its limitations, would suggest certain conclusions about the management o f neck pain that concur with management gUidelines about low back pain.

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