By Victoria Aspinall BVSc MRCVS
Focusing completely at the functional facets of the veterinary nurse's paintings, this crucial reference serves as an easy-to-follow consultant to scientific approaches in veterinary nursing. It provides a chain of step by step tactics which are utilized in day-by-day veterinary perform, with reasons of the explanation in the back of every one technique.The writer is recognized and revered within the box, bringing wisdom from either veterinary drugs and veterinary nursing to this text.Comprehensive, whole details makes this ebook the veterinary identical of the Marsden guide of sensible Procedures.Easy-to-follow layout makes info obtainable and understandable.Emphasizes the sensible features of veterinary nursing, with step by step tips for systems, abilities, and strategies.
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Due to its similarity to X-Ray CT this approach is called single-photon emission CT (SPECT). Usually one or several γ-cameras are rotated around the patient (Fig. 8). The camera acquires a number of planar images from different view angles in a “stop-and-go” mode. Typically 32 to 128 views are acquired and 34 Imaging modalities: principles and information content Figure 8. Principle of SPECT. Injected radiopharmaceuticals decay under the emission of γ-rays. A single or multiple γ-cameras that are rotated around the body to detect the γ-rays.
The radiation dose, however, is a physical definition and gives only little indication about the biological effect of radiation on different types of tissue. Therefore, the effective dose equivalent was introduced, which is defined as the weighted sum over the dose delivered to different organs. The weighting factors describe the different sensitivities of organs to radiation with respect to cancer. For example gonads and breast have a larger sensitivity to radiation than thyroids and skin. In addition, the delivered dose for each organ is weighted by a quality factor that describes the effect of different types of radiation.
When a γ-ray hits this scintillation crystal, it loses energy through photoelectric and Compton interactions with the crystal. The photoelectric interaction results in the emission of light, the intensity of which is proportional to the energy of the γ-rays. Overall, approximately 15% of the absorbed energy is converted into visible light. The light 36 Imaging modalities: principles and information content emitted in the scintillation crystal is converted to detectable electronic signals by a PMT.