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By Hanskat C.S., Tabat L.M.

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C) Storage tanks and reservoirs. (d) Water and wastewater pump stations. (e) Conduits, sewers, manholes, and junction chambers. (f) Hazardous materials containment structures. 2 — Proportion concrete with the appropriate type of cement; batch, mix, place, consolidate, finish, and cure the concrete to provide a liquid-tight and gastight structure. 2 — Pozzolans such as fly ash and silica fume, when added to the concrete mix, have been found to decrease the concrete’s permeability and increase its resistance to chemical attack.

5 percent. 0 percent shall be permitted. 3 Values are provided for both severe and moderate exposure depending on the exposure to moisture or deicing salts. Entrained air will not protect concrete containing coarse aggregates that undergo disruptive volume changes when frozen in a saturated condition. 1, a severe exposure is where the concrete in a cold climate may be in almost continuous contact with moisture prior to freezing, or where deicing salts are used. Examples are water tanks, tanks storing brackish water, pavements, and sidewalks.

4, depending on the properties of the steel and the manufacturing process. However, when the stress-strain curve is not elasto-plastic, there is limited experimental evidence to suggest that the actual steel stress at ultimate strength may not be enough less than the specified yield strength to warrant the additional effort of testing to the more restrictive criterion applicable to steels having fy greater than 60,000 psi. In such cases, the φ-factor can be expected to account for the strength deficiency.

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