By John Weiner
Chilly and ultracold collisions occupy a strategic place on the intersection of numerous strong subject matters of present examine in chemical physics; in atomic, molecular, and optical physics; or even in condensed subject. the character of those collisions has vital effects for optical manipulation of inelastic and reactive techniques, precision dimension of molecular and atomic homes, matter-wave coherences, and quantum-statistical condensates of dilute, weakly interacting atoms. this important place explains the huge curiosity and explosive progress of the sphere considering the fact that its inception in 1987. the writer experiences components of quantum scattering conception, collisions occurring within the presence of 1 or extra gentle fields, and collisions at midnight, lower than the photon draw back restrict imposed through the presence of any gentle box. eventually, it stories the fundamental homes of those mesoscopic quantum structures, and describes the foremost value of the scattering size to condensate balance.
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Extra info for Cold and ultracold collisions in Quantum Microscopic and Mesoscopic systems
Although the optical-velocity-selection technique achieves subthermal collision temperatures, it suffers from the disadvantage that only a small fraction of the atoms in the atomic beam participate, and signal levels are consequently low. 2 Atom beams 39 Fluorescence Intensity (arb. unit) Z--Axis Cooled velocity profile Frequency (MHz) detuned from 3S(F=2)−> 3P(F =3) Fig. 5. The trace with the sharp peak is the velocity proﬁle of axially cooled atomic beam. The broad low-amplitude trace shows the residual thermal velocity distribution from which the sharp peak was compressed, from Tsao et al.
Later a continuous uncooled source was used for that purpose, suggesting that the trap could be loaded with the slow atoms of a room-temperature vapor . The next advance in the development of magnetooptical trapping was the introduction of the vapor-cell magneto-optical trap (VCMOT). As shown by Monroe et al.  this variation captures cold atoms directly from the low-velocity edge of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution always present in a cell background vapor. Without the need to load the MOT from an atomic beam, experimental apparatuses became simpler; and now many groups around the world use the VCMOT for applications ranging from precision spectroscopy to optical control of reactive collisions.
1) where µ is the transition dipole and E is the electric ﬁeld of the light. 1 Atom traps the length scale of the optical ﬁeld. 4) and v= 2 . 5) In Eqs. 5 ω L = ω − ω0 is the detuning of the optical ﬁeld from the atomic transition frequency ω0 , is the natural width of the atomic transition, and is termed the Rabi frequency and reﬂects the strength of the coupling between ﬁeld and atom, µ · E0 . 6) h¯ In writing Eq. 7) and the electric ﬁeld of the light is given by the classical expression, E = E 0 [cos (ωt − k L R)] .