By Michael J. Lewis, Neil J. Heppell
This new e-book updates and expands Harold Burton's vintage publication, UHT Processing of Milk and Milk items, to supply complete, state of the art assurance of thermal processing of liquid and particulate meals. The meals items lined now contain soups, sauces, fruit juices, and different drinks, as well as milk and milk items. Pasteurization, sterilization, and aseptic processing are all mentioned, with emphasis at the underlying rules and difficulties of warmth therapy of extra viscous fluids, the place streamline circulate stipulations are inclined to succeed, and of goods containing debris. Pasteurization and warmth remedies designed to extra expand the shelf lifetime of pasteurized items also are mentioned, and the pasteurization and sterilization methods are in comparison to spotlight similarities and adjustments. all through, components influencing the protection and caliber of heated meals are emphasised. This publication comprises over a hundred illustrations and 50 tables, in addition to wide cross-referencing and a accomplished reference part.
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This shows how enthalpy is affected by changes in both temperature and solids content. Riedel (1955) also presents detailed enthalpy data for over 20 different oils and fats. These data are particularly useful during cooling for products containing fat, when crystallization will also take place (Table 1-9). 5 HEAT TRANSFER The three main mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the predominant mechanism in solids and convection in liquids. 4). Radiation involves heat transfer by the electromagnetic radiation that can cover the whole electromagnetic spectrum, for example microwaves, infrared, ultraviolet, X rays, and gamma rays.
On average, for every 10 times this happens, the microorganism will survive intact once). Similarly, in two decimal reduction time intervals, the chance of that single microorganism's surviving is 1 in 100, and so on. This leads to the direct consequence that the number of microorganisms cannot ever be guaranteed to be zero, and there is always a finite chance that a microorganism may survive increasing temperature Time Figure 2-1 The number of microorganisms surviving at lethal temperatures at any time and grow to cause spoilage of the container.
The broad aims of any method used are to heat the spores to a uniform known temperature, preferably immediately or with the minimum heating-up time, hold at that temperature for a known measured time, and then cool rapidly before enumeration of surviving spores, usually by a colony count. Ideally, there must be no differences in temperature within the apparatus and no differences in holding time at the high temperature; it is relatively easy to achieve one or the other of these conditions but not both.