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It is essentially a mobile three-dimensional network of coherent hydrogen and oxygen atoms based on the geometric arrangement and distribution of electric charge within the basic structural unit, the water molecule. 2 The Water Molecule The molecule, formally written, H2O, contains three atomic nuclei, one of oxygen with a charge, 8e+, two of hydrogen each with a charge, e+, all balanced by the collective charge of the associated electrons, 10e–. Its essential characteristics can be formulated using wave mechanics and confirmed by experimental observations.

Charge neutrality within the bulk liquid is conserved by the creation of a complementary hydroxyl ion, centered on another water molecule with a proton deficiency. In both cases, the local excess charge is dissipated over a volume of the surrounding hydrogen-bonded water matrix containing several molecules. © 1998 by CRC Press LLC The auto-dissociation is driven by an energy advantage in creating disorder (due to a positive entropy change*). This is opposed by the energy disadvantage (due to a positive enthalpy change*) in breaking O-H bonds and separating the charged fragments.

Descriptions of oxide structures relevant to the oxidation of metals are based on assessments of the bonds between ions, illustrations of lattice structures and explanations for various characteristic lattice and electronic defects they contain. Much of this is explained by the ideas of electronegativity, the partial ionic character of oxides and the influence of electron energy bands. Solid metal oxides are assemblies of positively charged metal cations and negatively charged oxygen anions formed by transfer of electrons from the metal atoms to the oxygen atoms from which they are composed.

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